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Hobby and professional electronics

Welcome to this presentation of hobby electronic construction kits or components for hobby electronics for a better prize than in the local stores, or find electronic components and building kits you do not find locally. Pleace click on a link to learn more or to buy. The presented products are only some of the products you can find by clicking at a link.

Electronic building kits

Electric energy kits

Electronic tool sets for construction, upgrade and repair

Electric and electronic measuring instruments - multimeters

Metal detectors

Detectors for gasses, radioactivity, etc, Geiger counters

Equipment for electronic games - like controllers

Transmitters and transmitter kits

Kits for special circuits - speed controllers, amplifiers, displays, light effects detectors

 

Photo, camcorders, video cameras

Desktop and notebook computer, computer periferials and accessories like batteries

Cellphones, smartphones

Internet and mobile telephone products

Other hobby products lik RC models

Good stores where you can find more electronic products

Links to all electronic product page

About semiconductor electronics - the construction and physics of modern electronic components






ELECTRONICS AND DIGITAL CIRCUIT KITS

These kits have special robust components that are easily snapped into the board.  They are therefore specially suited for younget kids, but you can make elecronic designs with real functions with them.

ELENCO 75-in-1 Electronic Project Lab Kit

ELENCO 75-in-1 Electronic Project Lab Kit

Learn basic principles of electricity, electronics, physics and magnetism. It includes everything you need to build: Timer buzzer, electronic organ, motion detector, voltage detector, logic tester and many, many moretester and many, many more. Illustrated, lab-style manual included. Requires four "AA" batteries (not included). Mfr. #MX-905.




ELENCO 130-in-1 Electronic Project Lab Kit

ELENCO 130-in-1 Electronic Project Lab Kit

Includes 130 experiments to teach the basic principles of electricity, electronics, physics and magnetism. Comes with built-in speaker, 7-segment LED display, two fully integrated circuits and rotary controls. It includes everything you need to build an AM broadcast station, electronic organ, strobe lights, timer, logic circuits and much more. Easy-to-read, illustrated, lab-style manual included. Requires six "AA" batteries (not included). Mfr. #MX-906.




ELENCO 200-in-1 Electronic Project Lab Kit

ELENCO 200-in-1 Electronic Project Lab Kit

Learn about transistors, transformers, diodes, capacitors, oscillators, basic electronic circuits and schematic symbols while completing the 200 fun and educational projects. Build your own radio, AM broadcast station, burglar alarm, electronic game, telegraph, rain detector and much more. Comes with built-in speaker, earphone, meter, seven-segment LED digital display and out-front controls. Easy-to-understand, illustrated, manual included. Requires six "AA" batteries (not included). Mfr. #MX-907.




Elenco MX908 300-in-1 Electronic Project Lab

Elenco MX908 300-in-1 Electronic Project Lab

NO TOOLS OR SOLDERING REQUIRED! These Electronic Science Labs will teach you about electronics from A to Z. With these all-in-one labs you ll learn about electronic parts how to read schematics and wiring diagrams. All this while building up to 500 different projects. These kits use two quick and easy hook-up methods: Spring Method: Simply slip pre-cut wires and components into special springs for a safe secure connection. Breadboard Method: Featured in our advanced kits this system is used by professionals and engineers. Just plug the components and wires into the special breadboard socket holes. No soldering is required. Everything uses safe battery power - no dangerous AC is required so it s safe for all ages. Labs come with all components and wires needed to build each project. NO TOOLS ARE REQUIRED. No prior knowledge is needed to assemble and build these exciting projects. Easy-to-read illustrated lab-style manuals take you through each electronic experiment step-by-step. All are designed for ages 10 & up so these are ideal for MIDDLE SCHOOLS and HIGH SCHOOLS. Everything you need to build 300 Exciting Electronic Projects: Transistor Radio IC Organ Burglar Alarm Delayed Timer Electronic Game Optical Volume Multiplier Multiple Counter Digital Light Dimmer Tone Burst Generator Audio Signal Tracer Electronic Candle Voice Level Meter Metal Detector Rain Detector Voltage Drop Alarm Logic Checker Function Generator Voltage Controlled Amplifier Requires 6 AA batteries.




OlympiaSports 17023 Electronics Advanced Circuits

OlympiaSports 17023 Electronics Advanced Circuits

Tap into the awesome world of electronics with this advanced system of snap-together electric building blocks. Start out by experimenting with colorful light-up circuits as you dive into the basics of electricity. Install a sound module to generate the sounds of police cars ambulances or fire engines. Learn the important role resistors and potentiometers (variable resistors) play in an electronic circuit. Use a multimeter to measure invisible voltage and current flowing through your circuit. Investigate transistors in switches and amplifiers to learn how the logical circuits in computers work. Build circuits that use sensors to detect moisture temperature and visible light. Incorporate capacitors in your circuits to store and discharge electricity for specific functions such as a countdown clock and a red-green alternate flasher. Test out the indispensable 555 timer to build some complicated circuits. Use an operational amplifier and an FM radio module to build an alarm clock. This kit uses the same unique electric building blocks as our other electronics kits with the addition of many new advanced components allowing you to build more complex circuits. The more than 140 electronic components include capacitors resistors transistors LEDs (light emitting diodes) phototransistor switches speaker integrated circuit infrared LED diodes FM tuner 555 timer operation amplifier two potentiometers electrodes voltage and current meter microphone and 9-volt battery pack.




Snap Circuits Light Experiment Set

Snap Circuits Light Experiment Set

Connect your tablet iPod, or other audio device and enjoy the music as your light circuit changes to the beat. The strobe light with spinning patterns creates some stunning visual effects. These snap circuits make learning about electronics fun and keeps you entertained for hours. With over 175 illustrated circuits from the manual these circuits are easy to build and uses the snap module design.




SC-750R Snap Circuits Training Program: SP

SC-750R Snap Circuits Training Program: SP

The Model SC-750R is an in-depth exploration of the electronic components included with the SC-750 Snap Circuits Extreme. Ideal for use in home schooling, middle schools and high schools, where students will grasp the basic principles of electronics. The Student Guide for the SC-750R includes 138 pages of educational curriculum. Written with the help of educators, the Student Guide is essential in covering all topics related to electricity and electronics being taught in middle schools and above. Includes real world applications and problem solving quizzes. The optional Teachers PAK includes three project books, teacher guide, and two student guides. The teacher guide is meant to prepare educators for proper introduction of Snap Circuits and guide them through each chapter with quizzes for students to test their knowledge. Requires 4 "AA" Batteries (not included) Topics Covered: Resistors, Capacitors, Transistors, Motors, Integrated Circuits, Switches, Series Circuits, Parallel Circuits, Batteries, Relays, Transformers, Digital Recording, 7-segment Displays SCRs , Analog Meters, Diodes, FM Radio Custom Storage Case: Each SC-750R comes with a lightweight, durable case with custom foam inserts to store all Snap Circuit parts. Easy to identify missing components.




Frey Scientific Scientific Basic Electronics Parts Kit

Frey Scientific Scientific Basic Electronics Parts Kit

Frey Scientific Basic Electronics Parts Kit is ideal for prototyping lab and includes a variety of parts for any digital or analog experiment. Plastic storage box contains more than 150 resistors capacitors inductors trimpots switches LEDs displays integrated circuits transistors and more.




Kid Inventor K120 Basic Electronics Kit  120 Projects

Kid Inventor K120 Basic Electronics Kit 120 Projects

Kid Inventor Creative Electronics Kits present hundreds of projects with a variety of control methods such as manual light magnetic sound water and motor. Using this kit kids can build a controllable fan a soundactivated music doorbell a fingertip flashbulb a radio a light sensitive alarm and more.




109 Piece Educational Electronics Kit with Active Components

109 Piece Educational Electronics Kit with Active Components

This kit contains a variety of active components like ICs and regulators as well as various PC boards, switches, headers, heat shrink and much more. Ideal to educate and train on the basic principles of electronics. Components are packaged in a deluxe carrying case with separate compartments to stay organized.




POOFSlinky 03003 Crystal Radio Electric Motor Combo Pack

POOFSlinky 03003 Crystal Radio Electric Motor Combo Pack

Combo includes Crystal Radio and Electric Motor Kit. The Crystal Radio Kit brings back the old memories and makes new ones. Build a working radio Pick up radio stations and experiment with radio waves. No batteries needed No tools needed with the Electric Motor just curiosity to make this powerful electric motor It s fun to use as it powers its own motorboat




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ELECTRONIC ENERGY AND ELECTROMECHANICS SCIENCE KITS

With these electronic kits have ordinary professional components. They are fasted to the board and held in place by small holders with a spring or some other elastic holder mechanism. Therefore they do not require any soldering.

ELENCO Deluxe Variable Regulated Power Supply Kit

ELENCO Deluxe Variable Regulated Power Supply Kit

Now you can build your own variable regulated power supply. This kit has three fully regulated supplies; 1.5~15V @ 1A, - 1.5~- 15V @ 1A or (3-30V @ 1A) and 5V @ 3A. It also features short circuit protection in a heavy-duty ventilated metal case.




Physics Solar Workshop

Physics Solar Workshop

Glimpse solar power in action with hands-on experiments.




National Geographic Sustainable Earth Lab

National Geographic Sustainable Earth Lab

This science kit gives you the tools and information to learn about the environmental problems burdening our planet.




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Electronic workshop tools

30 Piece Cell Phone Repair Kit

30 Piece Cell Phone Repair Kit

Cellular telephone tool kit contains an assortment of tools for general and precision work on mobile telephones and any other device with small fasteners and components. Also useful for technicians, service professionals, and DIYers. Tools come in a zippered carrying case to keep tools organized.




Dremel VersaTip Multipurpose Soldering Tool Kit 1550

Dremel VersaTip Multipurpose Soldering Tool Kit 1550

5 different tip designs are replaceable and interchangeable. Achieves maximum tip temperature of 1 050deg;F to safely burn faster and darker. Ergonomic stay cool design for maximum user comfort and control. Versatile tool stand is convenient for storage and protects work surface while in use. Finger grooved handle with protective heat shield runs cool and comfortable.




SYBA SYACC65054 Accessory Work Station Repair Tool Kit with Roomy Case Space for More Tools#44; Complete Soldering Tools

SYBA SYACC65054 Accessory Work Station Repair Tool Kit with Roomy Case Space for More Tools#44; Complete Soldering Tools

Roomy Zipper PU Carrying Case Space for More Tools (12 x 9 x 3 ). 5 Long Nose Pliers. 4 1/2 Side Cutter. Knife. Reverse Action Tweezers. 6pcs Precision Screwdriver Set. 4pcs Screwdriver Set. 1/4 Flat Screwdriver Ph2 Phillipe Screwdriver. 3/16 Flat Screwdriver PH1 Phillips Screwdriver. Utility Component Storage Box. 3pcs Solder Aid Tools. Soldering Stand. Solder Reel. Desoldering Pump. Soldering Iron. 6 Wire Stripper Pliers. Heat Sink. 3 Claw Parts Retriever. 10pcs Mini Combination Wrench.




Electronics Master Kit

Electronics Master Kit

A complete, portable kit for working on electronics. Perfect for the professional or hobbyist.




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Instruments and kits to measure voltage, current and other electrical or electronic parameters


Electronic diagnostic tool for components in cars and vehicles and similar components

Fluke True-RMS AC/DC Clamp Meter

Fluke True-RMS AC/DC Clamp Meter

The Fluke 374 True-RMS Clamp Meter can read up to 600 Volts and 600 Amps in both AC and DC modes. Additionally...




Fluke Insulation Test Meter Kit

Fluke Insulation Test Meter Kit

Combines a digital insulation tester with a full-featured true RMS digital multimeter Single compact...




Performance Tool CAN OBDII Diagnostic Scan Tool

Performance Tool CAN OBDII Diagnostic Scan Tool

Works with most 1996 and later models Includes American European and Asian vehicles Supports...




Multimeters for affordable prices

Fluke RMS Industrial Multimeter

Fluke RMS Industrial Multimeter

Built-in thermometer conveniently allows you to take temperature readings without carrying a separate...




Fluke 114 True-RMS Multimeter

Fluke 114 True-RMS Multimeter

Multimeters for every application! 114 is the electrical multimeter tool for troubleshooting and "go/no-go" testing. It includes a feature to eliminate inaccurate readings caused by "ghost" (stray) voltage. All three meters include: Resistance and continuity Large white LED backlight to work in poorly lit areas Min/max/average to record signal fluctuations Cat III 600V safety rated Digital display: 6000 counts, updates 4/sec




179 Electronics Multimeter and Deluxe Accessory Kit

179 Electronics Multimeter and Deluxe Accessory Kit

Designed to meet the needs of the Electronic's Professional. Rugged 1000V CAT III multimeter with backlight and industrial strength test lead probe kit in a lightweight, soft case to hold your meter and your accessories. Includes 179 TRMS multimeter, TL224 test leads, TL910 test probes, AC280 heavy duty hook clips, 80BK integrated temperature probe, ToolPakÂ? meter hanging accessory, and C35 soft case. Limited lifetime warranty on the multimeter, 1-year on all accessories.




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Metal detectors

Do you like to explore what you can find underground or in the soil. With a metal detector you can find a lot of valuable or interesting items you would not be aware of elswhere.

Good metal detectors handy to take with you into the fields

Orbitor Prospector PR2000 Auto-Calibrating Metal Detector For All Ages

Orbitor Prospector PR2000 Auto-Calibrating Metal Detector For All Ages

Orbitor Prospector PR2000 Auto-Calibrating Metal Detector For All Ages




Bounty Hunter TK2 Tracker II Metal Detector

Bounty Hunter TK2 Tracker II Metal Detector

The Bounty Hunter Tracker II Metal Detector is a classic model with redesigned graphics and electronics for improved performance. As a target nears the Tracker II s intensity meter provides a visual cue and the audio feedback tone increases. In addition the twotone audio feedback control aids in distinguishing between valuables and undesirable metals and can be discerned with or without headphones plugged into the 1/4 jack.




Mini Gadgets MDRING Ring Shaped Wand Metal Detector

Mini Gadgets MDRING Ring Shaped Wand Metal Detector

Use by security professionals for years this security wand is ideal for keeping your event secure. Perfect for concerts schools restaurants or bars this one simple device can help to ensure that whatever your hosting remains a safe environment. Simple to use all you have to do is wave the wand along a person and the scanner will alert you to any potentially dangerous devices that may be on the person. Peace of mind is just a wand wave away.




Gamo Ge100 Analog Meter Metal Detector

Gamo Ge100 Analog Meter Metal Detector

Analog Meter Metal Detector . Manufacture ID: GE100. Gamo GE100 Metal Detector. Specifictions:. Backlight: No. Coil Frequency Options: 5.5 kHz. Coil Diameter: 8 . Depth: 9 . Detect Modes: Adjustable. Discrimination: 1(Coin Treasure). Discrimination Scale: 10 Segment Meter. Ground Balance: Yes. Pin Point: Yes(Target). Sensitivity Adjustment: 110. Target Volume Adjustment: Not Adjustable. Length: 41 to 52 . Weight: 5 lbs. Audio Output: Internal Speaker or Headphones. Headphone Display: 1/4 Jack. Visual Display: Meter. Cable Running: Internal. Target Identification: No. Water Resistant: Yes. Low Battery Audio Alarm: LED Alarm. Batteries: 6 (1.5V) AA (not included). Warranty: 1 year




Bounty Hunter BHJS Junior Metal Detector

Bounty Hunter BHJS Junior Metal Detector

The Bounty Hunter Junior Metal Detector provides professional level features at a junior size and an affordable price. Your junior detectorist will be entertained for hours hunting for buried treasure. This detector is lightweight ergonomic and has an adjustable shaft to grow with your child and their sense of adventure.The Bounty Hunter Junior s metaldetecting coil is weather resistant and the control panel includes an easytouse intensity meter sensitivity control discrimination control and lowbattery indicator.




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Detectors to explore gass ocurances or radiation levels

Detector for combustible gasses - Sometimes it is important to detect gasses in the surrounding air in your home or workplace.

Safety Siren Carbon Monoxide & Combustible Gas Detector

Safety Siren Carbon Monoxide & Combustible Gas Detector

Keep your family safe with the Safety Siren combination gas detector. It protects your home and family...




TIF Instruments TIF8900 Combustable Gas Detector

TIF Instruments TIF8900 Combustable Gas Detector

Features and Benefits:



  • Solid state sensor technology long life and precision

  • Broad band of combustible gas detection

  • Sensitivity as low as 5 ppm

  • LED Leak Intensity Lights

  • Adjustable sensitivity Audible Geiger counter signal


This is the perfect tool to be used in a situation where a combustible gas vapor or residue needs to be found.Its 16 stainless probe for hard to reach places. It comes in a rugged custom carrying case. Applications include: Gas lines and pipes Exhaust and fuel leaks Propane filing stations Fuel in marine bilges Heat Exchanger leaks Check manholes for safet  Detect arson residue IAQ tests and Liquid or gas fired heating systems.





 




Detectors for radiation activities - It can also be interesting to explore the radioactive radiation levels in your home or your surroundings. The level of radioactivity and radioactive radiation is important for your health and well-being. In addition these levels can tell you a lot about natural processes and industrial activities at a place.

Science Source Geiger Counter, Plug-in

Science Source Geiger Counter, Plug-in

Features of Science Source Geiger Counter: A sensitive, plug-in Geiger Counter for radioactive demonstrations and experiments! Plugs into a standard 115VAC outlet Specially designed to give a sharp audible click for counting Unit has a Geiger tube window on the right side and a speaker on the front Meter detects alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and is sensitive to background radiation Simple radiation detector will support a range of radiation demonstrations and experiments




Science Source Geiger Counter, Digital Readout

Science Source Geiger Counter, Digital Readout

Features of Science Source Geiger Counter: Compact, sturdy, digital instrument for field or lab radiation measurement. Halogen-quenched, stainless-steel Geiger Mueller tube Sturdy and lightweight construction Operates on AC line voltage or with batteries Sensitive to low-level detection of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.


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STORES OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS OF ALL KIND

Here are presented some good online shops where you can find electronics of all kind for good prizes: Game equipment, Computers, Televisions, DVD Players / Recorders, Home Audio / Video, MP3 Players / iPod Accessories, Satellite Radio, Headphones, Mobile Audio / Video, GPS / Navigation, Home Electronics, Telephones & Fax, Personal Electronics, Electronic Accessories.


Electronic kits, components and tools - HobbyTron - By clicking at this link, you will find all types of electronic components for hobby use and for professional use in laboratories. You will find electronic sets that can be used to build a lot of sevices and circuits. There are kits for building or installing specific electronic devices like power supplies, wave and pulse generators, measure devices, detectors, alarms, light effect generators, radio resceivers and transmitters and a lot more. You will also find specific components of every kind singly or in bulk.

Electronics Kits, components and tools - please click here

You will also find NTE electronic parts, capasitators, dials, knobs, diodes, relays, resistors, potetiomenters, semiconductors of every kind, transistors, diodes, thyristors, speaker wires, trimmers, hook up wire, wire ties, Heat Shrinkable Tubing - Thin Wall Polyoefin -2:1 Per Package-48in, Heat Shrinkable Tubing - Thin Wall Polyoefin -2:1 Per Package-6in, Heat Shrinkable Tubing - Dual Wall Polyoefin w/Adhesive-3:1 Per Package-6in.



A special storew for all kind of electronics - Electronic devices, parts and accessories for entertainment, video gaming, work, surveiilance and security, computing, imaging, video, audio, medical applications, educarions, remote controle appliations, workshops amd much more.

Daily Deals & Bulk Bargains from MCM Electronics



Electronic devices for exceptional law prices - DinoDirect - This store spesializes in offering high class techical equipment for very good prizes, among those computers and other consumer electronics. They sell a cross section of products including MP3 players, iPods, HDTV’s, Computer Systems, Nintendo and Xbox consoles and more.



The source - a great shop for Canadian citicens of cellphones, laptops, audio-video and other electronics - In this online warehouse people in Canada can find cell phones and all other electronic deices for a good prize. The store has departments for: Computers, TV and home entertainment, Audio and MP3, Gaming, Music and electronic toys, Cameras and Camcorders, GPS and travel comodities, Cell phones. Home and office accessories, Batteries, Power and parts.



Skins and items to peronalize cellphones and all types of personal electronic devices - In this great shop you can find skins and covering accessories to give your electronic devices a personal and nice look.

DecalGirl.com - Personalize Your World!

 

Ink cartridges av all types - 123InkJets

123inkjets - Printer Ink, Toner, and More

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MENU OF OTHER PRODUCTS

Internet and mobile telephone products

Internet and web-housting

Kits for supply of electric power

Amplifier kits

Light organs, psychedelic lights and light effect sets

Sets for measuring and analyses of sounds, light, signals and electric currents

Specific electronic equipment kits of many kinds

Electronic transmitters and transmitter kits

General electronic and laboratory kits to build many things and do many experiments

Metal detectors - please scroll down

Alarm kits and security electronics

Photo, camcorders, video cameras

Desktop and notebook computers

Keyboards, printers periferials, batteries, accessories


 

MENU OF INFORMATION RESOURCES

About semiconductor devices - please scroll down

About transmitters

About resistors, capacitators and inductors, please scroll down

Some important internet services presented

About operating systems for smartphones

About digital cameras of all kinds

About standards for data-storage media

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HOBBY ITEMS OF ALL KIND

A good general hobby store

Trend Times Toy Store



Redcats and redcat accessories

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The priciples behind semiconductor electronic components

A semiconductor is a crystallic compound where the atoms are bound together in a three-dimensional framework, and where the electrons used for bonding are fairly loose, but not so loose that the material normally is conductive.  In the semiconductor cystal used in electronic devices,  there are certain added elements that nornally require less or more chemical bonds than the atoms in the crystal  framework. This makes the crystal conducting nearly like a metal.

In a N-type, the added componenets have more electrons for bonding that the atoms in the crystal lattice. This creates loose electrons that can be used for conduction. If two electrodes are placed on the material, these loose elctrons easily jumps over to the positive electrode, making the crystal positively charged. Then new electrons are attracted from the negative electrode into the crystal.

In a P-type semiconductor the added components have fewer electrons for bonds that the atoms of the crystal lattice.  Then the lattice will get holes where extra electrons can fit in. If two electrodes are placed on this material, electrons will easily be pushed from the negative elecrode into the crystal lattice. This makes the lattice negatively charged. Electrons will then be pulled out again at the positive electrode.

If you make a crystal with a N-part and a P-part or set two such crystals firmly against each other, and apply electrodes at both sides, the effects will be different according to which electrode is positive and which negative.

If the negative electrode is at the P-part, and the positive at the N-part, this will happen: The negative electrode will push electrones into the P-part, since the P-part has ready locations where the electrons can fit in. The positive electrode will drain electrones form the N-part, since there are  loose electrons in the N-part. This makes the P-part negative and the N-part positive. Then there will also be a stream of electrons across the junction between the P-part and tha N-part, since the N-part now is positively charged, and the P-part now has a negative charge. A curent will thus occure in the whole surcuit.

If the negative electrode is at the N-part, and the positive at the P-part, this will happen: The negative electrode will not manage to push electrones into the n-part, since the N-part allready is full of loose electrons. The positive electrode will not manage to drain electrones form the P-part, since there are not any loose electrons here. There will be no stream of electrons across the junction between the n-part and tha P-part, since neither the N-part, nor the P-part has any charge that can give a frose to push electrons over the PN-junction. No corrent will thus occure.

The ability of a PN-combination of letting current through in one directiuon and letting current pass in the other direction is the basis for all electronic components. A component simply consisting of of a combination of a P-type semiconductor materila and a N-type semiconductor material, is called a diode. A diode is simply a semiconductor rectifier.

A transistor is a semiconductor device consisting of three layers that can be connected to two circuits and arranged in such a way that the current or voltage in one of the circuits will control the current in the other circuit.

A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor consisting of a P-layer with a N-layer on both sides, or a N-layer with a P-layer on poths sides, called respectively PMP-transistors or NPN-transistors. If you connect a circuit acrosse all three layers layers, and another curcuit across one other outer layer and the mid layer, you can regulate the ability of the transistor to conduct current in the circuit across the three layers by variating the direction and intensity of the voltage and thus current applied in the last circuit across two layers.

Without any voltage and current applied through the mid layer and one of the outer layers, the device will not lead current, since the current must pass either a np-junction or a pn-junction, and one of these will not lead the current.

In a pnp-transistor, a positive voltage appied at the mid layer in the circuit across the mid and one outer layer, will drain electrons out of this layer, and make it a leader. Then the transistor vil act like a diode for the circuit applied across all the three layers.

In a npn-transistor, a negative voltage applied at the mid layer will introduce electrons into the lattice, and make it a leader, and the transistor vill behave like a diode for the circuit applied across all the three layers.

By using four or more layers, it is possible to make semiconductor devices with more complicated functions, like for example a thyristor consisting of four leyers of different types.

There are many materials that transistor crystals are made from, for example Semiconductor material: germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, silicon carbide.

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