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Paintball marker guns - how they are used and work
How paintball marker guns are used
A paintball gut, or paintball marker, is a hobby weapon used to fire out small plstic balls filled with paint. When the balls hit something, the plastic breaks, and the paint marks the hit target.
A paintball gun is the central piece of equipment in the sport of paintball. Paintball guns use a gas under pressure that is released (carbon dioxide or compressed air) to propel paintballs through the barrel. The term often used, paintball marker, originate from its original use of the device for forestry personnel and ranchers for marking trees and wandering cattle.
Functional properties of paintball marker guns
The muzzle velocity of paintballs is up to 300 feet per second (91 meters per second, or about 205 mph). Muzzle velocity above 300 feet per second is considered unsafe in sport activities. Below 300 fps, most paintballs will break upon impact without leaving significant damage beyond a small bruising. Due to the speed of flying paintballs, players must wear masks to protect the eyes, mouth, and ears when barrel blocking devices are not in place.
The majority of paintball markers have four main components: A body to grip and which holds all other components, a hopper to deliver the balls into position, a gas system (air tank), and a barrel.
The technical construction and function of pump-action paintball marker guns
The earliest paintball marker guns are pump-actioned. In these guns a gas chamber must be cocked full before each shot by a pump-action. This type of guns have a low bullet velocity and each shot must be done precisely because there are not so many opportunities to fire in each time unit. Still some players use this type a challange to themselves and to learn precise shooting.
The technical construction and function of CO2 patron paintball marker gun
Some low low-capacity paintball guns use are powered by 12-gram CO2 powerlets. These small patrones contain typically 12 g carbon dioxide compressed to liquid at 1800 psi and with a seal of lead. When setting them into the gun, a syringe is stuck through the lead and the CO2 under pressure is taken out through that syringe. This type of gun has the problem that the firing volocity soon drops, that the vaporization of CO2 cools other components and thus influence the action, that liquid CO2 can leak out and hit the bullit that then breaks inside the barrel and that these effects easily can destroy the mechanism. More advanced paintball guns use a larger tank for the carbon dioxide, allowing the gun to be used longer between each gas loading and allowing more consistant gas pressure.
There is still many stock-class players who use markers with a purposedly low rate of fire and capacity, as for example the CO2-powered guns.
The technical construction and function of gas tank paintball marker gun
The most advanced paintball guns use a high-pressure gas tank for air or nitrogen which stores the gas with a very high pressure 3000-5000 psi and using an attenuater regulating the pressure down to 250 - 800 psi. Such guns can be used longer between each filling, can if regulated to do so fire with a high velocity and can fire with a high frequency. When high pressure air or nitrogen is used, consistant bullet speeds can be assured.