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How does an airplane lift into the air

The wings of an airplane are formed as a foil, that means: It is thick in front and is thinning at the upper side as one moves backwords. Often the wing is also placed such that the front side is located higher than the back side.

The ordinary explanation for the lift given is something like this. "The shape of the wing makes the air move faster past the wing at the upper side than at the lower side. This makes an underpressure at the upper side and a lift upwords." This explanation is simply nonsense as it is normally presented, even though it is true that the air goes faster over the wing than under, and there is a matematical correllation between this speed difference and the lifting force. What actually occurs is something like this:

The shape of the front part of the wing presses air up over the wing, and down under the wing as it goes through the air. Since the wing is sloping down at the upper side immediately behind the front part, there will be a room covering the upper surface of the wing from where the front part has removed air by its action. Some of this air has been pressed up at some distance over this room, and some of it has been presssed under the wing. Air has inertia like every other material. Therefore the air pressed up will not fill this room immediately. The air immediately over the upper surface of the wing will therefore be thinner and have a lower pressure than the air at the underside of the wing. Therefore the pressure at the underside manages to lift the wing and the whole airplane upwords.The lifting force is proportional to the pressure difference between the room immediately over the upper surface of the wing and the lower side of the wing.

But this is only a part of the explanation. If the wing is placed in such a way that the front part is higher than the back part, also another effect occur. Air is pressed down by the wing. This takes away air from the upper side and presses it down under the wing. Again, since air is inert, the wing will have thinner air at the upper side, and thicker air at the underside. Again, the pressure will be higher under the wing than over the wing, and the pressure under the wing will lift the plane upwords.

Usually both these effects are used at the same time in an airplane. The lifting force depends on the foreward speed of the airplane. The faster the plane goes, the more it also will lift.

However, the lifting force have to be controlled, so that the airplane only lifs to the weight determined, and only lifts with the wanted speed, and so that the airplane get a wanted lift within a great range of foreward speeds. This is achieved by flpaps at the rear part of the wing that can be tilted up an down. By tilting the flpaps down, they will press air more together at the underside, and take even more air away from the upper side, makeing a greater lift.By tilting them up, a downword pressere can be made, reducing the overall lift.

How does an airplane get a balanced and stabile flight

The wings of the aircraft are places at the balance point under the fuselage. This way the fuselage will not tilt up an down because of the gravity. However, the aircraft can still tilt up and down because of irregularities in the air movement and air pressure around the aircraft. This tendency has to be controlled.

One way to controle it is by having stabilizing tail wings and a tail a rudder. If an aircraft moving foreward tilts up, down or to the side, the tail wings or ruddeer will be alligned in an angle to the direction of the foreward movement. This will make an over-pressure at the side of the tail wing or rudder to which the distortion is, and an under-pressure at the other side. This will press the aircraft's position back in a regular allignmant.

The tail wings and rudders also have flaps that can be tilted. By actively tilting them to the opposite side of the alignment distortion each time a distortion occur, the correcting effect can be made greater. Modern fighters are made in a way so that the distorting forces are too great to be controlled passively. Therefore such active correction must be made all the time and controlled automatically.

How is an aircraft steered

The aircraft has flaps at the main wings, the tail wings and the tail rudder. Usually there are two flaps on each main wing.

The inner flaps on the main wings are used to regulate the lifting force. The outer flaps of the main wings are used to ballance the airplane and are also used during swinging sideways.

The flaps on the tail rudder is used to make the wirplane swing up and down.

Sidewise swinging or direction change can be made by using the tail rudder if one only want the airplane to swing sideways, and without any rotation ofthe fuselage. However this is usually seldome done alone, because it tends to make the airplane tilt in a wrong direction, which gives unstability during the swing and makes a lifting action on the content inside the aircraft.

Usually it is preferable to let the aircraft tilt during a swing. Thus the inertial forces will press things inside the aircraft down during the swing, instead of sideways which is not prefered. Such a swing is done by tilting the flpaps on one of the main wing up and those at the other wing dowm, at the same time as the tail rudde is rotated.

When doing this, the aeroplane will tilt to one side. Then some of the force from the wing that normally is lifting the aircraft now will pull the aircraft against the side that the upperside of the aircraft is pointing at. This sideway force from the wing will make the aircraft turn.

The action of the tail rudder has two effects. It contributes to the swing of the aircraft. It also hinder the aircraft from tilting too much and spin totally round.

However, as not all force from the wings are now pullling upwards, the airplane will tend to sink. To counteract that, one must also give some more gas to the motor so that the motor works harder, and one must adjust the flaps to get more lift.


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